Acne vulgaris is a disease associated with a disorder of the sebaceous glands. The location of lesions, e.g. on the face often causes severe discomfort to the patient and influences the decision to urgently contact a doctor and start treatment.
What are the symptoms of acne vulgaris and how is the treatment of this disease?
What Is Common Acne?
Acne vulgaris, also known as common acne, is a dermatological condition belonging to the group of diseases of the sebaceous glands.
It occurs primarily in young people who have excessive activity of the sebaceous glands.
Causes Of Common Acne
The factor that has the greatest impact on the patient’s predisposition to acne is the congenital tendency to excessive sebum production and keratosis in the vicinity of the hair follicles.
Scholars say that this phenomenon is further exacerbated by various external factors, such as drugs or occupational exposure.
The essence of the disease process in acne vulgaris is also the level of hormones in the patient’s body – primarily androgens, as well as the presence of bacteria on the surface of the skin, e.g. Propionibacterium acnes.
Acne Vulgaris – Symptoms
Lesions present in acne vulgaris include blackheads, papulopustular eruptions, as well as purulent cysts. Skin eruptions in acne primarily affect the face and back, and more specifically their seborrheic areas.
The primary lesion is the aforementioned blackhead, the so-called comedo. Patients may have two types of comedones: open (with a hole in the middle, through which the sebaceous-corneal content comes out) or closed.
They can be distinguished from each other by using color – closed comedowns are usually white, while open ones are dark.
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Acne Vulgaris – The Lesson Of The Disease
Acne skin lesions usually last for a long time, and the disease itself is chronic and progresses with periods of exacerbation and improvement.
Lesions in acne vulgaris are located in seborrheic areas – on the back, face, and chest. For most patients, acne breakouts become less severe in the summer months due to sun exposure to the skin’s surface.
Acne Vulgaris – Varieties
Due to the diverse picture of the course of acne vulgaris, several types of this disease are distinguished. The clinical variations of acne vulgaris are as follows:
- juvenile acne – is characterized by a slight intensity of lesions, the vast majority of which are papules and blackheads. It usually lasts several years and concerns the period of adolescence;
- phlegmonous acne – purulent cysts appear in the disease picture, which leaves scars when healing;
- keloid acne – keloids are formed in places of acne lesions;
- conglobate acne – large blackheads are present. This variety mainly affects the male sex and is characterized by scarring after lesions;
- acne with accompanying general symptoms (severe course) – this form of acne affects only young boys. This acne is with fever, joint pain, or abnormalities seen in blood tests.
Another division of acne vulgaris is the classification taking into account comedian acne, phlegmonous acne, papulopustular acne, fulminant acne, keloid acne, induced acne, and adult acne.
Treatment Of Acne Vulgaris
The treatment of acne vulgaris is selected by a dermatologist in an individual way for the patient, taking into account his health condition and the image and severity of skin lesions.
However, there are some universal principles that doctors follow when choosing pharmacotherapy.
Patients with acne should use topical treatment. External therapy currently uses compounds such as benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics, and salicylic acid.
There are also complex preparations on the market that contain more than one of the listed groups of medicinal substances.
In addition, in many cases, the general treatment is also used in patients, based on e.g. on antibiotic therapy or the supply of drugs with anti-androgenic activity.
Other substances used in the systemic treatment of acne include spironolactone, steroids, isotretinoin, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Many specialists also recommend patients use cosmetology treatments, including chemical peels. Patients should consider supplementation with zinc and B vitamins.